HISTORY OF THE RIVERS TRIBES OF IKWERE, OGBA, ETCHE, ENGENNI & EKPEYE
A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE IKWERRE PEOPLE
Chambers Dictionary (William Geddie, ed. 1962) says: “A nation is a body of people marked off by common descent, language, culture, or historical tradition: the people of a tribe.” However, S.O.L. Amadi-Nna (1993) avers that: “A tribe is a group of clans under recognized chiefs and usually claiming common ancestry. Ikwerre can therefore not be a clan but a tribe. The Ikwerres claim a common ancestor. Ikwerre is an independent small tribe.” In the words of K.O. Amadi (1993), “Traditions suggest that Ikwerre is a nickname given to Iwhnuruọhna people…..They have ever since regarded themselves as a distinct group and have happily come a long way in their struggle for self-identity as evidenced by the recognition of their language as one of the Nigerian languages.” Amadi-Nna (1993) added that: “The Ikwerres are a small but distinct tribe. The Ikwerres have distinct linguistic, social and cultural traits and formations that distinguish them from other close neighbouring tribes like the Ijaws and the Ibos. Majority of the Ikwerre settlements have their roots traceable from the old Benin Empire.” Iwhnurọhna people descended from the ancient Benin Kingdom. The name of the grand ancestor is Akalaka. Their relations in Rivers State are Ekpeye and Ogba people. The reigning Oba of Benin when Akalaka, the ancestor of Ihru ọ ha (later called Iwhnurọ hna) fled was Oba Ewuare (Ogwaro). Akalaka, a member of the Benin royal family, fled in the 13 th century on allegation of plotting assassination of the Oba. He died in 1462. Iwhnurọ hna his third son settled east of the Sombrero River by 1538 AD, as detailed below. Chief N.M.T. Solomon (2004), native of Ikodu Ubie in Ekpeyeland, in his narrative draws heavily from the now authenticated written historical records delivered by various informed sources including “Eketu (Weber) of Ubeta, assumed to have lived for over two hundred (200) years as the oldest man in all Ekpeye, Ogba and Iwhnurọ hna (or Ikwerre), at that time (and) was asked to narrate the history and customs of Ekpeye people” as unfolded in his lifetime. Here is what he said, which has been validated by the accounts of the current generation through responses to our questionnaires and direct interviews thereby increasing our level of confidence on the data: Ekpeye, born in Benin, was the first of the three sons of Akalaka.
While in Ndoni, he married a second wife to gain the love and favour of the people. The new wife gave birth to a son, which he named Ogba. Akalaka was still in Ndoni when his first wife, the mother of Ekpeye, gave birth to his third son called Ihruoha (Ikwerre) . Similar historical fact by J.N. Olise (1971) averred that: “Akalaka, a member of the Benin royal family, fled with his wife from Benin to Ndoni, a community located close to the River Niger, to save the life of his new born baby (Ekpeye) … While at Ndoni, Akalaka took a second wife. …Akalaka had two sons, Ekpeye – born to him by his Benin wife, and Ogba – born to him by his Ndoni wife.
According to F.E. Otuwarikpo (1994). “After the death of Akalaka in 1462 AD, his two sons, Ekpeye and Ogba had conflict, which compelled Ogba, the younger son, to move northwards where he founded Ohiakwo (Obigwe) and settled with his family. Ekpeye who remained at Ula-Ubie had seven sons – Ubie, Akoh, Upata, Igbuduya, Ekpe, Awala and Asa. The last three sons – Ekpe, Awala and Asa – crossed to the other side of Sombreiro River (present day Ikwerreland and settled there since 1538 AD.” He added that: “Ekpe migrated to present day Rumuekpe and spread through Elele (Alimini), Ndele, Rumuji and part of Ibaa. Awala migrated to present day Isiokpo…” Amadi-Nna (1993) also said Akalaka migrated with his half brother called Ochichi from the area of Benin Empire. Ochichi sons were Ele (Omerele, now Elele), Elu (Elumuoha, now Omerelu), Egbe (Egbeda) and Mini (Alimini, Isiokpo).
The crucial point here, which is of great importance in tracing the joint origin of the ancestors of the Old Ahoada Division (in the Governor Diete-Spiff administration), is the mention of the number of children that Akalaka had, namely: Ekpeye, Ogba and Ihruọ ha (Ikwerre). It is noteworthy that the pedigree and name of Ikwerre people, Iwhnurọ hna, obviously took its root from this original name – Ihru ọ ha. Chief Solomon therefore establishes a very vital historical link, which has been missing in literature on Ikwerre origin that would assume more significance in the discourses of Ikwerre genealogy in the future – the fact that Akalaka was the direct father of Ihruọ ha (Ikwerre). Iwhnurọ hna, in Ikwere parlance, means the face of the community (town, city or village). Nigerian colonial history records that the name “Ikwerre” was given by the colonial administration when they wanted to acquire the Rebisi waterfront to build the wharf. Using an Ibo interpreter to talk to the illiterate Rebisi (Port Harcourt) chiefs, they asked them:
Would you permit us to use the waterfront to build the wharf for ships to berth? And they answered: A KWERULEM , meaning – “We have agreed.” What the white-man was hearing was “Ikwerre,” so he recorded it in the official gazette that the IKWERRE PEOPLE have agreed for the colonial administration to build the wharf. And since it was the official record of government, the name Ikwerre became the name of the Iwhnurohna people in all official documentations till date. Similar cases of Anglicization of native names in the Niger Delta region by the colonial administration are Benin for Bini, Okrika for Wakrike, Degema for Udekema, Abonnema for Obonoma, Brass for Gbara sni, Bonny for Ibani, Pepple for Perekule, Ahoada for Ehuda, etc Even so, “… there were dissenting voices, … who believed that Ikwerre origins lay outside Igbo land…in the Benin Kingdom of old. It is, therefore, obvious that the interminable debate about Ikwerre origins and migrations including the repudiation of the Igbo tradition is not a phenomenon of the post-civil war period. The controversy, as it were, is not necessarily the product of the present political realities wherein groups which hitherto were seen to have cultural affinities now find themselves in different states or administrative systems.” — K.O. Amadi (1993) The Ogbakor Ikwerre Convention, a cultural organization of Ikwerre people, in a paper presented to the Human Rights Violation Commission headed by Rtd. Justice Chukwudifu Oputa on 10 October 2001, said: “Ikwerre ethnic nationality is not and has never been a sub-group of any other tribe in Nigeria including Ndi-Igbo.
There is no doubt that the advent of the British and later regionalization put Ndi-Igbo at the helm of affairs in Eastern Nigeria. This brought Ndi-Igbo into Ikwerre land. In course of time, the Igbo took advantage of their position in the then Eastern Regional Government to grab land in Ikwerre and occupy political positions such as the mayor of Port Harcourt. In the process, Ikwerre along with other minority groups were marginalized and driven to the background.” Professor Godwin Tasie noted that in 1913 the Rt Rev Herbert Tugwell, the Anglican Bishop on the Niger, undertook an experimentation tour of Ikwerre towns and villages assumed to be Ibo-speaking to test the Union Ibo Bible Nso beingintroduced in Iboland. “Tugwell discovered from the tests he carried out that although the Ikwerre were often regarded as Ibo… the Union Ibo Bible translation, surprisingly, was not easily understood by the
Ikwere.” This is obviously why Igbo vernacular was compulsorily introduced and taught in all schools in Ikwerreland before the Nigerian Civil War to the assimilation (i.e. destruction) of the Ikwere language.
This also obviously led to the Rumuomasi Declaration in 1965. ” … in their meeting at Rumuomasi in 1965 the Ikwerre had, under the umbrella of a highly promising new body that was to get the Ikwerre together as a people of new and clearer vision, they had declared themselves as a people of the distinct identity of Ikwerre Ethnic Nationality – not Ibo, not Ijo, not anything else but Ikwerre, Iwhnur ọ hna. This was the historic Rumuomasi Declaration of 1965 (G.O.M. Tasie, 2000). The full implication is that Ikwere people began to assert themselves forcefully as an ethnic nationality of their own and not Ibos or Ijos, and efforts were made to revert to the original Ikwere names for families, villages, communities and landmarks. For instance, there was the change from Umuola to Rumuola , Umuoro to Rumuoro, Umukrushi to Rumuokwurusi, just to name a few.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ogba, also called the Ogba people, is a Tribe in Rivers State, Nigeria originating from the Ancient Benin Empire. They are located within the south-south area in Nigeria. They speak the Ogba language. Aligu-Alinso okanu is an Ogba clan. The Egi group comprises seventeen communities with a rich history of Nature resources. A study conducted in Ogbogu located in one of the largest oil producing regions of Nigeria has utilized two plant species to clean up spills. The first stage of cleanup involves Hibiscus cannabinus. Ali-Ogba, (Ogba Kingdom) is an Ethnic group which main spoken language is called (Ogba Dialect) comprises the Egi and Igburu Section. they both speak one dialect with little difference with each other, having a combine population of about 280,000 people. It is located in the central Orashi-Sombreiro plains of Rivers State, Nigeria, is one of the major producers of the CRUDE OIL that fuels Nigeria’s economic development in recent decades. According to current oil company records, no local government in Nigeria produces as much crude oil and gas as the Ogba/Egbema/Ndoni (ONELGA) local government (Ellah 1995)
Ali-Ogba people have some socio-cultural and political legacies that reinforce their common origin and bind them together as a people with common heritage and destiny. These include: geographic location, migration routes, language and political structure. Geographically, Ali-Ogba stretches from about 4 50 N to 5 30’N and extends from about 6 25 E to about 6 40’ E. Spatially, it covers an area of 920 km2 in the northern part of the Niger Delta region located within the River Niger flood plains.. It is bordered on the west by the Orashi river and on the east by the Sombreiro river. In addition to the main drainage systems, there are the Omoku river and many back swamps, cut offs and interconnecting streams which form a maze of drainage channels superimposed on the area. At the peak of the rainy season, these interconnected waterways are a prominent feature of the landscape.Its location in the Sombreiro-Warri deltaic plains, which consists of coastal plains sands and other tertiary deposits – marine, mixed, and continental deposits typical of deltaic environments situates it in the rain forest zone of southern Nigeria. The area can be divided into four ecological zones:
The Sombreiro river plains (eastwards)
The Orashi river flood plains (westwards)
The central well drained lowlands and farm mosaic (between the Orashi and Sombreiro rivers
The non-tidal freshwater swamps basin.
The highest part of Ali-Ogba is the well drained lowland and farm mosaic with altitude ranging from 15m to22 m. In general, the land is characterized by a gentle sloping topography of less than 10 degrees in many areas. This relatively low altitude gives the area its characteristics flat and monotonous low relief interspersed by many wetland (swamp /creek basins), which crisscross the central low lands and empty into the two main river systems (Sombreiro and Orashi)(Ellah 1995). As a result of its geographic location, Ali-Ogba enjoys all year round high temperatures averaging 80 degrees Fahrenheit in the day with over night lows ranging from 65 to 70 degrees. Also, the area has at least ten months of rainfall totaling over 80 inches per year with very high humidity in the summer months. The climatic conditions and topography support a wide variety of plant and animal life. The flora consists of economic trees especially oil palm trees and a variety of plants species of great pharmacological value as human elixir.(Ellah 1995).
Legends of origin: Ali-Ogba communities constitute one of the minority ethnic groups of Nigeria and share common ancestry, socio-cultural elements and heritage. Oral history and folklore have it that Ali-Ogba people migrated to what is now called Ali-Ogba from the area of the then Benin Empire across the Niger about the 16th century.(Ellah 1995)
Etche is a Local Government Area (LGA) in Rivers State, Nigeria, named after the Etche ( Echie) people of Southern Nigeria. The Etche are a sub-group of the Igbo people and they speak a dialect of the Igbo language. They also inhabit Omuma LGA; Etche/Omuma is a National Assembly constituency.
Etche communities include Akwu/Obuor, Chokocho, Chokota, Egwi, Afara, Mba, Ikwerengwo, Okehi, Ulakwo, Umuakonu, Umuebulu, Umuechem, egbeke Igbodo the ancestral home of Etche (Igbodo is made up o the following communities; Umuohiaukwu, Umuusharam, Umuoga, Okonocho, Umuine, Umudi, Umunkwa, Umuohie, Amaku, Obibi, Ezeleaka, Umuisi].
Etche is the first settler or founder of “Etche” land. One oral tradition has it that he is a man called “Echefu”, who was corruptly named “Etche”. Another version says that his name is “Eche”, whose name was anglicized or colonially spelt “Etche”. But one thing is clear; whether the name is “Etche”, “Ochie”, “Eche”, “Echefu”, or “Etche”, it is referring to one and the same person called “ETCHE”, “ECHEFU”, “ECHIE”, “ECHE”, “OCHIE” who is the forebear or ancestor of all Etche people East, West, North, South and ethnic nationality that is spread across three (3) of Nigeria, viz: Rivers, Abia, and Imo States and possibly Delta and Edo, Onyema (2000). It has four (4) know Local Governments (two in Rivers State and two in Imo State) with a heavy presence in Abia State. The origin of Etche is traced to different areas and also has an oral tradition associated with the history of Etche. The paper discusses two origins, which are the Igbo and Benin Origins.
THE BENIN ORIGIN
In a very ambitious attempt to construct the historical past of Etche, Achonwa (1980) traced the migration of the people from a particular place and point in time. According to him: The Etche people left the Benin Kingdom about 7th century. They moved up to Agbor, and entered the Orashi River through Ndoni. Creek-settling for brief while at the present-day Omoku … they moved eastwards up to Abua. They crossed Abua to Ndele on land; stopping finally at Igbo, the first Etche settlement. There is the speculation that “this horde” was an amalgam of many other tribes, which according to Achonwa included the Ikwerres, Abuans, Ekpeyes, etc. He submits that this was responsible for the settlement known as Ikwerre-Ngwo – a conglomerate of peoples.
The second account premised on the linguistic origin of the language spoken by the Igbo people which, like the Edo, Yoruba, Odoma, Igala and Akan languages, belongs to the larger family of African languages known as the Niger-Congo stock. In this regard, linguistic affinity could also be used to determine the origin of a people. This clearly stated by Johnson in Williamson (1987) thus: There is no tracing the connection of ancientations, but by language. Therefore, I am always sorry when any language is lost, because the languages are the pedigree of nations. If you find the same language in distant countries, you may be sure that the inhabitants of each have been the same people. If this submission is anything to go by, we can say without equivocation and contradiction that the linguistic relationship between the Igbo language and that of Etche has been established as corroborative evidence of Afigbo’s historical position. For example, in an incisive study of the languages spoken in Rivers State, Williamson classified the major languages according to their linguistic relationship. She characterized all languages that have some linguistic affinity with the Igbo language as “Igboid”. She listed the language groups in this category as follows: Ekpeye, Ikwerre, Ogbah, Egbema and Echie.
According to Onyema (2000), Etche is part of the Benin in Diaspora of the fourteenth century. He moved along with the Ogbas, Ekpeyes and Ikwerres. They crossed the River Niger from one spot and spread themselves southwesterly and southeasterly from the spot they crossed the River Niger. This myth has some credence. There is similarity of language among the Ogbas, the Ikwerres and the Etches. There is also similarity of language between the “Etches” and Igbodos” of Delta State. “Igbodo” is a town between Asaba and Agbor in Delta State. There is a town called Obite in Ogba land and Obite town in Etche. Also, an address sent to the Ekpeye people in their annual “OGWU EKPEYE” cultural festival by the Oba of Benin confirmed this aspect of the history. The present Oba of Benin was one time Divisional Officer in the then Ahoada Division, which comprised Etche, Ikwerre, Ekpeye, Ogba and Abua. They were then known as clans.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Engenni people (Egeni) are considered by themselves and some to be an Ijaw clan and by others (mainly academics) to be a branch of the Edo (Bini) ethnic group. They primarily live in Ahoada West Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria. Although they consider themselves to be Ijaw, the Engenni speak an Edoid language. The Engenni have close relations with neighboring Ijaw tribes such as the Zarama and Epie-Atissa.
Historically, it is claimed that Engenni migrated from the old Benin Empire about 1000 years ago. In the cause of migration they first settled in an isoko community and later founded a settlement called Ewurebe. Though no longer in existence, history has it that the settlement was situated near the border between the present-day Biseni in Bayelsa State and Engenni. They later migrated and founded other settlements which include Okilogua, Okpankio, Nyenegile and Eliabi (Akinima) and later founded the present day Engennni communities and other outside Engenni kingdom. Some communities founded from Engenni migration include, Degema, Usokun, Obonoma and Zarama. Engenni historical presence is also felt at Kula, Bile and some communities in Abua, Ogbia, as well as some other communities in Bayelsa State.
The Engenni clan is believed to have first settled in and around their present habitations over nine hundred years ago, as depicted by historical artifacts collected at Okilogua, Enusha, and the Ede-emu lakes at Ewurebe, Okilouga, Enusha, and Ikodi communities. Engenni kingdom is grouped among the Niger-Congo, Edoid people of Nigeria, belonging to the kwa group of the Delta sub-saharan Africa. They belong to the Guinean clusger and speak a primary language known originally as Ejiro. The Engenni people are among the very first settlers in the Niger Delta region and this is corroborated by some aspects of the early history, culture and environmental characteristics of the kingdom as documented in the works of historians and early Christian visitors to the early 1800s. Engenni Kingdom lies on the banks of the Engenni River (now known as part of the Orashi river). The Engenni River has significant tributaries like the Taylor creek and Kolo creek which are major gateways to other Niger Delta habitations like the Ijo clans, the Nembe, as well as the Ogbia and Kalabari kingdoms.The Engenni (Egene) language has metamorphosed into three major dialects namely Enuedua, Ogua, and Ejiro dialects.
Geo-Politically, Engenni forms part of the present-day Ahoada West Local Government Area of Rivers State, and host the local Government Headquarters at Akinima. The kingdom is ruled by one Government recognized traditional ruler, the Okilom-Ibe of Engenni kingdom, Who is the paramount ruler of the Kingdom. All five federating clans of the kingdom have a Group-head known as the Okilom-Opiri, while communities within the clans that make up the Engenni kingdom have traditional heads known as the Okilom-Akie. The earliest known documentation of Engenni language, culture, and phonetic sounds are those of American Baptist missionaries in the area, as well as occasional mention in the works of some missionaries on the Niger Delta region, as well as those generated by early European traders like the Lander Brothers, and the United African Company – UAC.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Ekpeye (Àkpà ọ́híá) are a people in southeastern Nigeria with a distinct culture and rulers of a former kingdom. The Ekpeye are usually included as a subgroup of the Igbo people on linguistic and cultural grounds. They speak an Igboid language. Ekpeye people live in the Ahoada (Ehuda) and Ogba-Egbema areas of Rivers State in Nigeria, and were a population of about 80,000 by the 1991 census, the number has increased by about 63% increasing them to approximately 130,000, according to the 2006 census estimates. The Ekpeye have long lived in the land bounded by River Orashi in the West and River Sombreiro in the East; starting out at the northern end from about 3000 BC. Archaeological work showed a steady and very consistent southward movement of the Igbo people, resulting in about AD 1000 in a large settlement mainly at the central geographically elevated area now called Akoh (Dry Land) and Egi. The rise and Expansion of the Benin Kingdom in the following centuries, forced Igbo-speaking but Benin culture-bearing populations down the Niger river into then Ekpeyeland. A socio-political crisis resulted.Ekpeye Clan
A minority of the Ekpeye, who sided with the Benin cultured Igbo immigrants, moved away up north and founded what is now Ogba land, whose language plainly bears the inprints of the Ekpeye and Igbo languages. The commonest historical tale in Ogba and Ekpeye today, is that both are “the sons of one father born of different mothers”. At about 1542 AD, during the reign of Oba Awuarre of Benin, when the Benin kingdom was at its most glorious and its culture at its most widespread, Ogba, which majority were Benin-cultured, created the theory that its Progeneitor was a Prince of Benin. They gave his name as ‘Akalaka’, which noticeably, does not match any personality mentioned in Benin Histories. The man known today as the father of Ekpeye and Ogba is now held by some historians[who?] to have left Benin kingdom due to infighting within the royal family; to have fled with his family, amidst rumors of his inevitable demise for his disloyalty to the Oba. That they moved southwards, following the River Niger, eventually settling along the Orashi River (in current day Ubie in Ekpeyeland, southeastern Nigeria).
All the time, the Ekpeye lived in towns settled by members of one, some or all the Seven original distinct families of Ekpeye – Imaji, Uchi, Agolo, Uzhi,Ishikoloko, Edyiwulu,and Akpa. They practiced full representative democracy. But the challenges of the politics of colonial government forced in changes. First it was a pseudo kingdom established by one Nworisa Odu of Ogbele town who initially successfully challenged British entry into Ekpeye land via the River Sombreiro. He was pacified with recognition as the Eze of Ekpeye. He was later lured away to Degema, a colonial administrative center,where he died later in about 1890. Eze Ashirim, who became the first Eze Ekpeye Logbo, brought peace, publicity and pomp to the Ekpeye monarchy and with it came recognition by the Nigerian government and additional political influence in the region. Today (2006) the revered monarchy, is occupied by a retired Nigerian Air Force officer, His Royal Highness Eze Robinson O. Robinson, The Eze Ekpeye Logbo II of Ekpeye land. Although many monarchs in the region are usually hereditary, The Ekpeye monarch is one of a few which relies upon a democratic process in the selection of a new King. Every Ekpeye son or daughter can vie for the throne when it becomes vacant.